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"Machines who think—how utterly preposterous," huff beleaguered humanists, defending their dwindling turf. "Artificial Intelligence—it's here and about to surpass our own," crow techno-visionaries, proclaiming dominion. It's so simple and obvious, each side maintains, only a fanatic could disagree. Deciding where the truth lies between these two extremes is the main purpose of John Haugeland's marvelously lucid and witty book on what artificial intelligence is all about. Although presented entirely in non-technical terms, it neither oversimplifies the science nor evades the fundamental philosophical issues. Far from ducking the really hard questions, it takes them on, one by one. Artificial intelligence, Haugeland notes, is based on a very good idea, which might well be right, and just as well might not. That idea, the idea that human thinking and machine computing are "radically the same," provides the central theme for his illuminating and provocative book about this exciting new field. After a brief but revealing digression in intellectual history, Haugeland systematically tackles such basic questions as: What is a computer really? How can a physical object "mean" anything? What are the options for computational organization? and What structures have been proposed and tried as actual scientific models for intelligence? In a concluding chapter he takes up several outstanding problems and puzzles—including intelligence in action, imagery, feelings and personality—and their enigmatic prospects for solution.
The Promise of Artificial Intelligence by Brian Cantwell Smith Pdf
An argument that—despite dramatic advances in the field—artificial intelligence is nowhere near developing systems that are genuinely intelligent. In this provocative book, Brian Cantwell Smith argues that artificial intelligence is nowhere near developing systems that are genuinely intelligent. Second wave AI, machine learning, even visions of third-wave AI: none will lead to human-level intelligence and judgment, which have been honed over millennia. Recent advances in AI may be of epochal significance, but human intelligence is of a different order than even the most powerful calculative ability enabled by new computational capacities. Smith calls this AI ability “reckoning,” and argues that it does not lead to full human judgment—dispassionate, deliberative thought grounded in ethical commitment and responsible action. Taking judgment as the ultimate goal of intelligence, Smith examines the history of AI from its first-wave origins (“good old-fashioned AI,” or GOFAI) to such celebrated second-wave approaches as machine learning, paying particular attention to recent advances that have led to excitement, anxiety, and debate. He considers each AI technology's underlying assumptions, the conceptions of intelligence targeted at each stage, and the successes achieved so far. Smith unpacks the notion of intelligence itself—what sort humans have, and what sort AI aims at. Smith worries that, impressed by AI's reckoning prowess, we will shift our expectations of human intelligence. What we should do, he argues, is learn to use AI for the reckoning tasks at which it excels while we strengthen our commitment to judgment, ethics, and the world.
Introduction to Artificial Intelligence by Wolfgang Ertel Pdf
This accessible and engaging textbook presents a concise introduction to the exciting field of artificial intelligence (AI). The broad-ranging discussion covers the key subdisciplines within the field, describing practical algorithms and concrete applications in the areas of agents, logic, search, reasoning under uncertainty, machine learning, neural networks, and reinforcement learning. Fully revised and updated, this much-anticipated second edition also includes new material on deep learning. Topics and features: presents an application-focused and hands-on approach to learning, with supplementary teaching resources provided at an associated website; contains numerous study exercises and solutions, highlighted examples, definitions, theorems, and illustrative cartoons; includes chapters on predicate logic, PROLOG, heuristic search, probabilistic reasoning, machine learning and data mining, neural networks and reinforcement learning; reports on developments in deep learning, including applications of neural networks to generate creative content such as text, music and art (NEW); examines performance evaluation of clustering algorithms, and presents two practical examples explaining Bayes’ theorem and its relevance in everyday life (NEW); discusses search algorithms, analyzing the cycle check, explaining route planning for car navigation systems, and introducing Monte Carlo Tree Search (NEW); includes a section in the introduction on AI and society, discussing the implications of AI on topics such as employment and transportation (NEW). Ideal for foundation courses or modules on AI, this easy-to-read textbook offers an excellent overview of the field for students of computer science and other technical disciplines, requiring no more than a high-school level of knowledge of mathematics to understand the material.
Understanding Artificial Intelligence by Nicolas Sabouret Pdf
Artificial Intelligence (AI) fascinates, challenges and disturbs us. There are many voices in society that predict drastic changes that may come as a consequence of AI – a possible apocalypse or Eden on earth. However, only a few people truly understand what AI is, what it can do and what its limitations are. Understanding Artificial Intelligence explains, through a straightforward narrative and amusing illustrations, how AI works. It is written for a non-specialist reader, adult or adolescent, who is interested in AI but is missing the key to understanding how it works. The author demystifies the creation of the so-called "intelligent" machine and explains the different methods that are used in AI. It presents new possibilities offered by algorithms and the difficulties that researchers, engineers and users face when building and using such algorithms. Each chapter allows the reader to discover a new aspect of AI and to become fully aware of the possibilities offered by this rich field.
The Alignment Problem: Machine Learning and Human Values by Brian Christian Pdf
A jaw-dropping exploration of everything that goes wrong when we build AI systems and the movement to fix them. Today’s “machine-learning” systems, trained by data, are so effective that we’ve invited them to see and hear for us—and to make decisions on our behalf. But alarm bells are ringing. Recent years have seen an eruption of concern as the field of machine learning advances. When the systems we attempt to teach will not, in the end, do what we want or what we expect, ethical and potentially existential risks emerge. Researchers call this the alignment problem. Systems cull résumés until, years later, we discover that they have inherent gender biases. Algorithms decide bail and parole—and appear to assess Black and White defendants differently. We can no longer assume that our mortgage application, or even our medical tests, will be seen by human eyes. And as autonomous vehicles share our streets, we are increasingly putting our lives in their hands. The mathematical and computational models driving these changes range in complexity from something that can fit on a spreadsheet to a complex system that might credibly be called “artificial intelligence.” They are steadily replacing both human judgment and explicitly programmed software. In best-selling author Brian Christian’s riveting account, we meet the alignment problem’s “first-responders,” and learn their ambitious plan to solve it before our hands are completely off the wheel. In a masterful blend of history and on-the ground reporting, Christian traces the explosive growth in the field of machine learning and surveys its current, sprawling frontier. Readers encounter a discipline finding its legs amid exhilarating and sometimes terrifying progress. Whether they—and we—succeed or fail in solving the alignment problem will be a defining human story. The Alignment Problem offers an unflinching reckoning with humanity’s biases and blind spots, our own unstated assumptions and often contradictory goals. A dazzlingly interdisciplinary work, it takes a hard look not only at our technology but at our culture—and finds a story by turns harrowing and hopeful.
Risks of Artificial Intelligence by Vincent C. Müller Pdf
If the intelligence of artificial systems were to surpass that of humans, humanity would face significant risks. The time has come to consider these issues, and this consideration must include progress in artificial intelligence (AI) as much as insights from AI theory. Featuring contributions from leading experts and thinkers in artificial intelligence, Risks of Artificial Intelligence is the first volume of collected chapters dedicated to examining the risks of AI. The book evaluates predictions of the future of AI, proposes ways to ensure that AI systems will be beneficial to humans, and then critically evaluates such proposals. The book covers the latest research on the risks and future impacts of AI. It starts with an introduction to the problem of risk and the future of artificial intelligence, followed by a discussion (Armstrong/Sokala/ÓhÉigeartaigh) on how predictions of its future have fared to date. Omohundro makes the point that even an innocuous artificial agent can easily turn into a serious threat for humans. T. Goertzel explains how to succeed in the design of artificial agents. But will these be a threat for humanity, or a useful tool? Ways to assure beneficial outcomes through ‘machine ethics’ and ‘utility functions’ are discussed by Brundage and Yampolskiy. B. Goertzel and Potapov/Rodionov propose ‘learning’ and ‘empathy’ as paths towards safer AI while Kornai explains how the impact of AI may be bounded. Sandberg explains the implications of human-like AI via the technique of brain emulation. Dewey discusses strategies to deal with the ‘fast takeoff’ of artificial intelligence and, finally, Bishop explains why there is no need to worry because computers will remain in a state of ‘artificial stupidity’. Sharing insights from leading thinkers in artificial intelligence, this book provides you with an expert-level perspective of what is on the horizon for AI, whether it will be a threat for humanity, and how we might counteract this threat.
Artificial Intelligence and Industry 4.0 by Aboul Ella Hassanien,Jyotir Moy Chatterjee,Vishal Jain Pdf
Artificial Intelligence and Industry 4.0 explores recent advancements in blockchain technology and artificial intelligence (AI) as well as their crucial impacts on realizing Industry 4.0 goals. The book explores AI applications in industry including Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) technology. Chapters explore how AI (machine learning, smart cities, healthcare, Society 5.0, etc.) have numerous potential applications in the Industry 4.0 era. This book is a useful resource for researchers and graduate students in computer science researching and developing AI and the IIoT. Explores artificial intelligence applications within the industrial manufacturing and communications sectors Presents a wide range of machine learning, computer vision, and digital twin applications across the IoT sector Explores how deep learning and cognitive computing tools enable processing vast data sets, precise and comprehensive forecast of risks, and delivering recommended actions
The artificial intelligence (AI) landscape has evolved significantly from 1950 when Alan Turing first posed the question of whether machines can think. Today, AI is transforming societies and economies. It promises to generate productivity gains, improve well-being and help address global challenges, such as climate change, resource scarcity and health crises.
A Citizen's Guide to Artificial Intelligence by John Zerilli Pdf
A concise but informative overview of AI ethics and policy. Artificial intelligence, or AI for short, has generated a staggering amount of hype in the past several years. Is it the game-changer it's been cracked up to be? If so, how is it changing the game? How is it likely to affect us as customers, tenants, aspiring home-owners, students, educators, patients, clients, prison inmates, members of ethnic and sexual minorities, voters in liberal democracies? This book offers a concise overview of moral, political, legal and economic implications of AI. It covers the basics of AI's latest permutation, machine learning, and considers issues including transparency, bias, liability, privacy, and regulation.
Artificial intelligence touches nearly every part of your day. While you may initially assume that technology such as smart speakers and digital assistants are the extent of it, AI has in fact rapidly become a general-purpose technology, reverberating across industries including transportation, healthcare, financial services, and many more. In our modern era, an understanding of AI and its possibilities for your organization is essential for growth and success. Artificial Intelligence Basics has arrived to equip you with a fundamental, timely grasp of AI and its impact. Author Tom Taulli provides an engaging, non-technical introduction to important concepts such as machine learning, deep learning, natural language processing (NLP), robotics, and more. In addition to guiding you through real-world case studies and practical implementation steps, Taulli uses his expertise to expand on the bigger questions that surround AI. These include societal trends, ethics, and future impact AI will have on world governments, company structures, and daily life. Google, Amazon, Facebook, and similar tech giants are far from the only organizations on which artificial intelligence has had—and will continue to have—an incredibly significant result. AI is the present and the future of your business as well as your home life. Strengthening your prowess on the subject will prove invaluable to your preparation for the future of tech, and Artificial Intelligence Basics is the indispensable guide that you’ve been seeking. What You Will Learn Study the core principles for AI approaches such as machine learning, deep learning, and NLP (Natural Language Processing)Discover the best practices to successfully implement AI by examining case studies including Uber, Facebook, Waymo, UiPath, and Stitch FixUnderstand how AI capabilities for robots can improve businessDeploy chatbots and Robotic Processing Automation (RPA) to save costs and improve customer serviceAvoid costly gotchasRecognize ethical concerns and other risk factors of using artificial intelligenceExamine the secular trends and how they may impact your business Who This Book Is For Readers without a technical background, such as managers, looking to understand AI to evaluate solutions.
Melanie Mitchell separates science fact from science fiction in this sweeping examination of the current state of AI and how it is remaking our world No recent scientific enterprise has proved as alluring, terrifying, and filled with extravagant promise and frustrating setbacks as artificial intelligence. The award-winning author Melanie Mitchell, a leading computer scientist, now reveals AI’s turbulent history and the recent spate of apparent successes, grand hopes, and emerging fears surrounding it. In Artificial Intelligence, Mitchell turns to the most urgent questions concerning AI today: How intelligent—really—are the best AI programs? How do they work? What can they actually do, and when do they fail? How humanlike do we expect them to become, and how soon do we need to worry about them surpassing us? Along the way, she introduces the dominant models of modern AI and machine learning, describing cutting-edge AI programs, their human inventors, and the historical lines of thought underpinning recent achievements. She meets with fellow experts such as Douglas Hofstadter, the cognitive scientist and Pulitzer Prize–winning author of the modern classic Gödel, Escher, Bach, who explains why he is “terrified” about the future of AI. She explores the profound disconnect between the hype and the actual achievements in AI, providing a clear sense of what the field has accomplished and how much further it has to go. Interweaving stories about the science of AI and the people behind it, Artificial Intelligence brims with clear-sighted, captivating, and accessible accounts of the most interesting and provocative modern work in the field, flavored with Mitchell’s humor and personal observations. This frank, lively book is an indispensable guide to understanding today’s AI, its quest for “human-level” intelligence, and its impact on the future for us all.
Artificial Intelligence by Harvard Business Review Pdf
Companies that don't use AI to their advantage will soon be left behind. Artificial intelligence and machine learning will drive a massive reshaping of the economy and society. What should you and your company be doing right now to ensure that your business is poised for success? These articles by AI experts and consultants will help you understand today's essential thinking on what AI is capable of now, how to adopt it in your organization, and how the technology is likely to evolve in the near future. Artificial Intelligence: The Insights You Need from Harvard Business Review will help you spearhead important conversations, get going on the right AI initiatives for your company, and capitalize on the opportunity of the machine intelligence revolution. Catch up on current topics and deepen your understanding of them with the Insights You Need series from Harvard Business Review. Featuring some of HBR's best and most recent thinking, Insights You Need titles are both a primer on today's most pressing issues and an extension of the conversation, with interesting research, interviews, case studies, and practical ideas to help you explore how a particular issue will impact your company and what it will mean for you and your business.
Smart Cities and Artificial Intelligence by Christopher Grant Kirwan,Zhiyong Fu Pdf
Smart Cities and Artificial Intelligence offers a comprehensive view of how cities are evolving as smart ecosystems through the convergence of technologies incorporating machine learning and neural network capabilities, geospatial intelligence, data analytics and visualization, sensors, and smart connected objects. These recent advances in AI move us closer to developing urban operating systems that simulate human, machine, and environmental patterns from transportation infrastructure to communication networks. Exploring cities as real-time, living, dynamic systems, and providing tools and formats including generative design and living lab models that support cities to become self-regulating, this book provides readers with a conceptual and practical knowledge base to grasp and apply the key principles required in the planning, design, and operations of smart cities. Smart Cities and Artificial Intelligence brings a multidisciplinary, integrated approach, examining how the digital and physical worlds are converging, and how a new combination of human and machine intelligence is transforming the experience of the urban environment. It presents a fresh holistic understanding of smart cities through an interconnected stream of theory, planning and design methodologies, system architecture, and the application of smart city functions, with the ultimate purpose of making cities more liveable, sustainable, and self-sufficient. Explores concepts in smart city design and development and the transformation of cities through the convergence of human, machine, and natural systems enabled by Artificial Intelligence (AI) Includes numerous diagrams to illustrate and explain complex smart city systems and solutions Features diverse smart city examples and initiatives from around the globe
Artificial Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction by Margaret A. Boden Pdf
The applications of Artificial Intelligence lie all around us; in our homes, schools and offices, in our cinemas, in art galleries and - not least - on the Internet. The results of Artificial Intelligence have been invaluable to biologists, psychologists, and linguists in helping to understand the processes of memory, learning, and language from a fresh angle. As a concept, Artificial Intelligence has fuelled and sharpened the philosophical debates concerning the nature of the mind, intelligence, and the uniqueness of human beings. In this Very Short Introduction , Margaret A. Boden reviews the philosophical and technological challenges raised by Artificial Intelligence, considering whether programs could ever be really intelligent, creative or even conscious, and shows how the pursuit of Artificial Intelligence has helped us to appreciate how human and animal minds are possible. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.