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Out-of-equilibrium Soft Matter by Christina Kurzthaler,Luigi Gentile,Howard A Stone Pdf
The term active fluids refers to motions that are created by transforming energy from the surroundings into directed motion. There are many examples, both natural and synthetic, including individual swimming bacteria or motile cells, drops and bubbles that move owing to surface stresses (so-called Marangoni motions), and chemical- or optical-driven colloids. Investigations into active fluids provide new insights into non-equilibrium systems, have the potential for novel applications, and open new directions in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. This book provides an expert introduction to active fluids systems, covering simple to complex environments. It explains the interplay of chemical processes and hydrodynamics, including the roles of mechanical and rheological properties across active fluids, with reference to experiments, theory, and simulations. These concepts are discussed for a variety of scenarios, such as the trajectories of microswimmers, cell crawling and fluid stirring, and apply to collective behaviours of dense suspensions and active gels. Emerging avenues of research are highlighted, ranging from the role of active processes for biological functions to programmable active materials, showcasing the exciting potential of this rapidly-evolving research field.
Applications of Synchrotron Light to Scattering and Diffraction in Materials and Life Sciences by T.A. Ezquerra,Mari Cruz Garcia-Gutierrez,Aurora Nogales,Marian Gomez Pdf
In a ?rst approximation, certainly rough, one can de?ne as non-crystalline materials those which are neither single-crystals nor poly-crystals. Within this category, we canincludedisorderedsolids,softcondensed matter,andlivesystemsamong others. Contrary to crystals, non-crystalline materials have in common that their intrinsic structures cannot be exclusively described by a discrete and periodical function but by a continuous function with short range of order. Structurally these systems have in common the relevance of length scales between those de?ned by the atomic and the macroscopic scale. In a simple ?uid, for example, mobile molecules may freely exchange their positions, so that their new positions are permutations of their old ones. By contrast, in a complex ?uid large groups of molecules may be interc- nected so that the permutation freedom within the group is lost, while the p- mutation between the groups is possible. In this case, the dominant characteristic length, which may de?ne the properties of the system, is not the molecular size but that of the groups. A central aspect of some non-crystalline materials is that they may self-organize. This is of particular importance for Soft-matter materials. Self-organization is characterized by the spontaneous creation of regular structures at different length scales which may exhibit a certain hierarchy that controls the properties of the system. X-ray scattering and diffraction have been for more than a hundred years an essential technique to characterize the structure of materials. Quite often scattering anddiffractionphenomenaexhibitedbynon-crystallinematerialshavebeenreferred to as non-crystalline diffraction.
Non-equilibrium Phenomena in Confined Soft Matter by Simone Napolitano Pdf
This book deals with those properties of non-equilibrium soft matter that deviate greatly from the bulk properties as a result of nanoscale confinement.The ultimate physical origin of these confinement effects is not yet fully understood. At the state of the art, the discussion on confinement effects focuses on equilibrium properties, finite size effects and interfacial interactions. However this is a limited vision which does not fully capture the peculiar behaviour of soft matter under confinement and some exotic phenomena that are displayed. This volume will be organized in the following three main themes. Equilibration and physical aging: treating non-equilibrium via the formal methodology of statistical physics in bulk, we analyse physical origin of the non-equilibrium character of thin polymer. We then focus on the impact of nanoconfinement on the equilibration of glasses of soft matter (a process of tremendous technological interest, commonly known as physical aging), comparing the latest trends of polymers in experiments, simulations with those of low-molecular weight glass formers. Irreversible adsorption: the formation of stable adsorbed layers occurs at timescales much larger than the time necessary to equilibrate soft matter in bulk. Recent experimental evidence show a strong correlation between the behaviour of polymers under confinement and the presence of a layer irreversibly adsorbed onto the substrate. This correlation hints at the possibility to tailor the properties of ultrathin films by controlling the adsorption kinetics. The book reports physical aspects of irreversible chain adsorption, such as the dynamics, structure, morphology, and crystallization of adsorbed layers. Glass transition and material properties: this section of the book focuses on the spread of absolute values in materials properties of confined systems, when measured by different experimental and computation techniques and a new method to quantify the effects of confinement in thin films and nanocomposites independently on the investigation procedure will be presented.
Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter Physics by Shigeyuki Komura,Takao Ohta Pdf
Soft matter is a concept which covers polymers, liquid crystals, colloids, amphiphilic molecules, glasses, granular and biological materials. One of the fundamental characteristic features of soft matter is that it exhibits various mesoscopic structures originating from a large number of internal degrees of freedom of each molecule. Due to such intermediate structures, soft matter can easily be brought into non-equilibrium states and cause non-linear responses by imposing external fields such as an electric field, a mechanical stress or a shear flow. Volume 4 of the series in Soft Condensed Matter focuses on the non-linear and non-equilibrium properties of soft matter. It contains a collection of review articles on the current topics of non-equilibrium soft matter physics written by leading experts in the field. The topics dealt with in this volume includes rheology of polymers and liquid crystals, dynamical properties of Langmuir monolayers at the air/water interface, hydrodynamics of membranes and twisted filaments as well as dynamics of deformable self-propelled particles and migration of biological cells. This book serves both as an introduction to students as well as a useful reference to researchers. Contents:Onsager's Variational Principle in Soft Matter Dynamics (M Doi)Rheo-Dielectric Behavior of Soft Matters (H Watanabe, Y Matsumiya, K Horio, Y Masubuchi and T Uneyama)Morphology and Rheology of Immiscible Polymer Blends in Electric and Shear Flow Fields (H Orihara)Dynamical Aspects of Two-Dimensional Soft Matter (F Sagués, J Claret and J Ignés-Mullol)Hydrodynamic Effects in Multicomponent Fluid Membranes (S Komura, S Ramachandran and M Imai)Actively Twisted Polymers and Filaments in Biology (H Wada & R R Netz)Dynamics of Deformable Self-Propelled Particles: Relations with Cell Migration (M Sano, M Y Matsuo and T Ohta) Readership: Students and professionals working in the field of soft condensed matter. Keywords:Soft Matter;Active Matter;Rheology;Polymer;Liquid Crystal;Membrane;ColloidKey Features:Non-equilibrium Soft Matter Physics is a rapidly growing new research fieldAll the contributors are the top researchers in this fieldThe book also highlights the strong areas of research in Japan
Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Collective Excitations in Quantum Materials by Edoardo Baldini Pdf
This book studies the dynamics of fundamental collective excitations in quantum materials, focusing on the use of state-of-the-art ultrafast broadband optical spectroscopy. Collective behaviour in solids lies at the origin of several cooperative phenomena that can lead to profound transformations, instabilities and phase transitions. Revealing the dynamics of collective excitations is a topic of pivotal importance in contemporary condensed matter physics, as it provides information on the strength and spatial distribution of interactions and correlation. The experimental framework explored in this book relies on setting a material out-of-equilibrium by an ultrashort laser pulse and monitoring the photo-induced changes in its optical properties over a broad spectral region in the visible or deep-ultraviolet. Collective excitations (e.g. plasmons, excitons, phonons...) emerge either in the frequency domain as spectral features across the probed range, or in the time domain as coherent modes triggered by the pump pulse. Mapping the temporal evolution of these collective excitations provides access to the hierarchy of low-energy phenomena occurring in the solid during its path towards thermodynamic equilibrium. This methodology is used to investigate a number of strongly interacting and correlated materials with an increasing degree of internal complexity beyond conventional band theory.
Ultrafast Magnetism I by Jean-Yves Bigot,Wolfgang Hübner,Theo Rasing,Roy Chantrell Pdf
This volume on Ultrafast Magnetism is a collection of articles presented at the international “Ultrafast Magnetization Conference” held at the Congress Center in Strasbourg, France, from October 28th to November 1st, 2013. This first conference, which is intended to be held every two years, received a wonderful attendance and gathered scientists from 27 countries in the field of Femtomagnetism, encompassing many theoretical and experimental research subjects related to the spins dynamics in bulk or nanostructured materials. The participants appreciated this unique opportunity for discussing new ideas and debating on various physical interpretations of the reported phenomena. The format of a single session with many oral contributions as well as extensive time for poster presentations allowed researchers to have a detailed overview of the field. Importantly, one could sense that, in addition to studying fundamental magnetic phenomena, ultrafast magnetism has entered in a phase where applied physics and engineering are playing an important role. Several devices are being proposed with exciting R&D perspectives in the near future, in particular for magnetic recording, time resolved magnetic imaging and spin polarized transport, therefore establishing connections between various aspects of modern magnetism. Simultaneously, the diversity of techniques and experimental configurations has flourished during the past years, employing in particular Xrays, visible, infra-red and terahertz radiations. It was also obvious that an important effort is being made for tracking the dynamics of spins and magnetic domains at the nanometer scale, opening the pathway to exciting future developments. The concerted efforts between theoretical and experimental approaches for explaining the dynamical behaviors of angular momentum and energy levels, on different classes of magnetic materials, are worth pointing out. Finally it was unanimously recognized that the quality of the scientific oral and poster presentations contributed to bring the conference to a very high international standard.
Soft Matter And Biomaterials On The Nanoscale: The Wspc Reference On Functional Nanomaterials - Part I (In 4 Volumes) by Anonim Pdf
This book is indexed in Chemical Abstracts ServiceSoft and bio-nanomaterials offer a tremendously rich behavior due to the diversity and tailorability of their structures. Built from polymers, nanoparticles, small and large molecules, peptoids and other nanoscale building blocks, such materials exhibit exciting functions, either intrinsically or through the engineering of their organization and combination of blocks. Thus, it is not surprising that a variety of challenges, for example, in energy storage, environment protection, advanced manufacturing, purification and healthcare, can be addressed using these materials. The recent advances in understanding the behavior of soft matter and biomaterials are being actively translated into functional materials systems and devices, which take advantages of newly discovered and specifically created morphologies with desired properties. This major reference work presents a detailed overview of recent research developments on fundamental and application-inspired aspects of soft and bio-nanomaterials and their emerging functions, and will be divided into four volumes: Vol 1: Soft Matter under Geometrical Confinement: From Fundamentals at Planar Surfaces and Interfaces to Functionalities of Nanoporous Materials; Vol 2: Polymers on the Nanoscale: Nano-structured Polymers and Their Applications; Vol 3: Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials: Nanomaterials Built from Biomolecules and Using Bio-derived Principles; Vol 4: Nanomedicine: Nanoscale Materials in Nano/Bio Medicine.
Scanning Probe Microscopy of Soft Matter by Vladimir V. Tsukruk,Srikanth Singamaneni Pdf
Well-structured and adopting a pedagogical approach, this self-contained monograph covers the fundamentals of scanning probe microscopy, showing how to use the techniques for investigating physical and chemical properties on the nanoscale and how they can be used for a wide range of soft materials. It concludes with a section on the latest techniques in nanomanipulation and patterning. This first book to focus on the applications is a must-have for both newcomers and established researchers using scanning probe microscopy in soft matter research. From the contents: * Atomic Force Microscopy and Other Advanced Imaging Modes * Probing of Mechanical, Thermal Chemical and Electrical Properties * Amorphous, Poorly Ordered and Organized Polymeric Materials * Langmuir-Blodgett and Layer-by-Layer Structures * Multi-Component Polymer Systems and Fibers * Colloids and Microcapsules * Biomaterials and Biological Structures * Nanolithography with Intrusive AFM Tipand Dip-Pen Nanolithography * Microcantilever-Based Sensors
Soft Materials by John R. Dutcher,Alejandro G. Marangoni Pdf
Representing the wide breadth academic disciplines involved in this ever-expanding area of research, this reference provides a comprehensive overview of current scientific and technological advancements in soft materials analysis and application. Documenting new and emerging challenges in this burgeoning field, Soft Materials is a unique and outsta
Soft and Fragile Matter by Michael E. Cates,M.R Evans Pdf
Covering colloids, polymers, surfactant phases, emulsions, and granular media, Soft and Fragile Matter: Nonequilibrium Dynamics, Metastability and Flow (PBK) provides self-contained and pedagogical coverage of the rapidly advancing field of systems driven out of equilibrium, with a strong emphasis on unifying conceptual principles rather than material-specific details. Written by internationally recognized experts, the book contains introductions at the level of a graduate course in soft condensed matter and statistical physics to the following areas: experimental techniques, polymers, rheology, colloids, computer simulation, surfactants, phase separation kinetics, driven systems, structural glasses, slow dynamics, and granular materials. These topics lead to a range of exciting applications at the forefront of current research, including microplasticity of emulsions, sequence design of copolymers, branched polymer dynamics, nucleation kinetics in colloids, multiscale modeling, flow-induced surfactant textures, fluid demixing under shear, two-time correlation functions, chaotic sedimentation dynamics, and sound propagation in powders. Balancing theory, simulation, and experiment, this broadly-based, pedagogical account of a rapidly developing field is an excellent compendium for graduate students and researchers in condensed matter physics, materials science, and physical chemistry.
The Oxford Handbook of Soft Condensed Matter by Eugene Michael Terentjev Pdf
This Handbook serves both as an introduction and an overview of the field of soft condensed matter. The discussion covers topics ranging from the fundamentals of colloid science to the principles and action of surfactants, modern directions of research in liquid crystals, and the key properties of foams. The book also explores the fundamental physics that controls the structure and mechanics of granular matter; how the unusual and often dramatic mechanical properties of concentrated polymer systems are determined by the physics of entanglements; the complex structures formed by block copolymers and the methods of structure analysis; rubber elasticity and new emerging classes of rubber-elastic materials; the physics of polyelectrolytes; the solvent dynamics in polymer gels, in equilibrium and under mechanical stress; and the hierarchical structure and characteristics of an extracellular matrix.
Handbook of Lipid Membranes by Cyrus R. Safinya,Joachim Radler Pdf
This handbook provides a unique overview of lipid membrane fundamentals and applications. The fascinating world of lipids that harbor and govern so many biological functionalities are discussed within the context of membrane structures, interactions, and shape evolution. Beyond the fundamentals in lipid science, this handbook focuses on how scientists are building bioinspired biomimetic systems for applications in medicine, cosmetics, and nanotechnology. Key Features: Includes experimental and theoretical overviews on the role of lipids, with or without associated biomolecules, as structural components imparting distinct membrane shapes and intermembrane interactions Covers the mechanisms of lipid-membrane curvature, by peptide and protein binding, and the roles of signalling lipids and the cytoskeleton in plasma membrane shape evolution Covers advanced X-ray and force measurement techniques Discusses applications in biomedicine, cosmetics, and nanotechnology, including lipid vectors in nucleic acid, drug delivery in dermal applications, and lipid-based sensors and artificial biointerfaces Covers artificial membranes from block copolymers, synthetic copolypeptides, and recombinant proteins Includes an exciting section that explores the role of lipids in the origin of life in hydrothermal conditions This book is a highly informative companion for professionals in biophysics, biochemistry, physical chemistry, and material and pharmaceutical sciences and bioengineering.
Fluids, Colloids and Soft Materials by Alberto Fernandez-Nieves,Antonio Manuel Puertas Pdf
This book presents a compilation of self-contained chapters covering a wide range of topics within the broad field of soft condensed matter. Each chapter starts with basic definitions to bring the reader up-to-date on the topic at hand, describing how to use fluid flows to generate soft materials of high value either for applications or for basic research. Coverage includes topics related to colloidal suspensions and soft materials and how they differ in behavior, along with a roadmap for researchers on how to use soft materials to study relevant physics questions related to geometrical frustration.
Non-equilibrium dynamics of lipid bilayers : Time resolved x-ray scattering at in-house and synchrotron sources by Tobias Reusch Pdf
The main goal of this thesis was to extend and apply time resolved x-ray scattering experiments at in-house, synchrotron and free electron laser sources to soft matter sample systems, in particular aligned lipid multilayers on solid support. A special emphasis was placed on a characterization of the non-equilibrium fast time response of the multilamellar stack to shortly pulsed optical excitation as well as the acousto-electric field accompanying a surface acoustic wave (SAW). In addition to fundamental questions associated with non-equilibrium dynamics of soft matter films such as driven membrane undulations, this thesis addresses technological challenges of time resolved x-ray diffraction, in particular concerning the timing scheme that has been implemented at the synchrotron storage ring Petra III, DESY, Hamburg. Importantly, a conceptually new pulse resolved x-ray detection scheme, well exceeding the performance of present detector concepts, has been developed and is described in detail.