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Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods by A. Peres Pdf
There are many excellent books on quantum theory from which one can learn to compute energy levels, transition rates, cross sections, etc. The theoretical rules given in these books are routinely used by physicists to compute observable quantities. Their predictions can then be compared with experimental data. There is no fundamental disagreement among physicists on how to use the theory for these practical purposes. However, there are profound differences in their opinions on the ontological meaning of quantum theory. The purpose of this book is to clarify the conceptual meaning of quantum theory, and to explain some of the mathematical methods which it utilizes. This text is not concerned with specialized topics such as atomic structure, or strong or weak interactions, but with the very foundations of the theory. This is not, however, a book on the philosophy of science. The approach is pragmatic and strictly instrumentalist. This attitude will undoubtedly antagonize some readers, but it has its own logic: quantum phenomena do not occur in a Hilbert space, they occur in a laboratory.
Quantum Theory of the Solid State by Joseph Callaway Pdf
Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Student Edition, describes the concepts and methods, and introduces some of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. It should be suitable as a textbook for students who have completed a one-year course in quantum mechanics and have some familiarity with the experimental facts of solid state physics. It should also be useful as a reference work. The book is organized into two parts. Part A contains much of the formalism required for the theoretical study of solids; Part B is oriented toward more specific problems. Thus, Part A includes phenomenological treatments of lattice vibrations and magnetic order, a discussion of symmetry groups, and a description of the properties of one-electron wave functions and the principal techniques for calculating energy levels. In Part B the machinery developed previously is applied to impurities, disordered systems, the effects of external fields, and transport phenomena (including superconductivity). The book concludes with an introduction to many-body theory, including some applications.
If the carriers of information are governed by quantum mechanics, new principles for information processing apply. This graduate textbook introduces the underlying mathematical theory for quantum communication, computation, and cryptography. A focus lies on the concept of quantum channels, understanding fi gures of merit, e.g. fidelities and entropies in the quantum world, and understanding the interrelationship of various quantum information processing protocols.
Quantum Theory of the Solid State A by Joseph Callaway Pdf
Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part A, describes the concepts and methods, and introduces some of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This work is intended to be a single intellectual unit, although for reasons of convenience it has been divided into two parts. Part A contains much of the formalism required for the theoretical study of solids; Part B is oriented toward more specific problems. The present volume includes phenomenological treatments of lattice vibrations and magnetic order; a discussion of symmetry groups; and a description of the properties of one-electron wave functions and the principal techniques for calculating energy levels. Fairly lengthy bibliographies have been included at the end of each chapter to assist readers in making their way through the more specialized periodical literature. This book should be suitable as a textbook for students who have completed a one-year course in quantum mechanics and have some familiarity with the experimental facts of solid state physics. It should also be useful as a reference work.
Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Physics by Dipankar Home Pdf
It may tum out that, like certain other phenomena studied by sociologists, bouts of interest in the foundations of quantum mechanics tend to come in 60-year cycles. It is hardly surprising that in the first decade or so of the subject the conceptual puzzles generated by this strange new way of looking at the world should have generated profound interest, not just among professional physicists themselves but also among philosophers and informed laymen; but this intense interest was followed by a fallow period in the forties and fifties when the physics establishment by and large took the view that the only puzzles left were the product either of incompetent application of the formalism or of bad philosophy, and only a few brave individualists like the late David Bohm dared to suggest that maybe there really was something there after all to worry about. As Bell and Nauenberg, surveying the scene in 1966, put it: "The typical physicist feels that [these questions 1 have long ago been answered, and that he will fully understand how if ever he can spare twenty minutes to think about it. " But gradually, through the sixties and seventies, curiosity did revive, and the last ten years or so have seen a level of interest in foundational questions, and an involvement in them by some of the leading figures of contemporary physics, which is probably unparalleled since the earliest days.
Quantum Physics by Mircea S. Rogalski,Stuart B. Palmer Pdf
This book presents the basic concepts and methods of quantum mechanics for upper level undergraduate students, allowing them to master its application to real physical situations. A postulate-based treatment is adopted together with a gradual development of the quantum formalism of wave functions, operators, measurement and temporal evolution. Standard topics of one-dimensional and atomic motion, angular momentum and approximation methods are presented in addition to detailed discussions of many-particle systems, atomic and nuclear radiation. Appropriate mathematical tools and techniques are provided wherever necessary. The core text is supplemented by 77 worked examples, some of which address more complex issues and aspects of present-day research. The aim is to make this textbook a realistic introduction to more advanced and specialized texts. The material provides full coverage of the subject matter, 94 problems with solutions and a further 93 with answers only
Theoretical Concepts of Quantum Mechanics by Renard Nowak Pdf
Quantum theory as a scientific revolution profoundly influenced human thought about the universe and governed forces of nature. Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics relating to the very small. It results in what may appear to be some very strange conclusions about the physical world. At the scale of atoms and electrons, many of the equations of classical mechanics, which describe how things move at everyday sizes and speeds, cease to be useful. Quantum mechanics (QM) developed over many decades, beginning as a set of controversial mathematical explanations of experiments that the math of classical mechanics could not explain. It began at the turn of the 20th century, around the same time that Albert Einstein published his theory of relativity, a separate mathematical revolution in physics that describes the motion of things at high speeds. Quantum mechanics attempts to describe and account for the properties of molecules and atoms and their constituents--electrons, protons, neutrons, and other more esoteric particles such as quarks and gluons. These properties include the interactions of the particles with one another and with electromagnetic radiation. An essential feature of quantum mechanics is that it is generally impossible, even in principle, to measure a system without disturbing it; the detailed nature of this disturbance and the exact point at which it occurs are obscure and controversial. Theoretical Concepts of Quantum Mechanics represents a rich account of foundation, scientific history of quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics and field theory, and different methods to solve the Schrodinger equation. This book will be of valuable for students and researchers.
The Many Valued and Nonmonotonic Turn in Logic by Dov M. Gabbay,John Woods Pdf
The present volume of the Handbook of the History of Logic brings together two of the most important developments in 20th century non-classical logic. These are many-valuedness and non-monotonicity. On the one approach, in deference to vagueness, temporal or quantum indeterminacy or reference-failure, sentences that are classically non-bivalent are allowed as inputs and outputs to consequence relations. Many-valued, dialetheic, fuzzy and quantum logics are, among other things, principled attempts to regulate the flow-through of sentences that are neither true nor false. On the second, or non-monotonic, approach, constraints are placed on inputs (and sometimes on outputs) of a classical consequence relation, with a view to producing a notion of consequence that serves in a more realistic way the requirements of real-life inference. Many-valued logics produce an interesting problem. Non-bivalent inputs produce classically valid consequence statements, for any choice of outputs. A major task of many-valued logics of all stripes is to fashion an appropriately non-classical relation of consequence.The chief preoccupation of non-monotonic (and default) logicians is how to constrain inputs and outputs of the consequence relation. In what is called “left non-monotonicity , it is forbidden to add new sentences to the inputs of true consequence-statements. The restriction takes notice of the fact that new information will sometimes override an antecedently (and reasonably) derived consequence. In what is called “right non-monotonicity , limitations are imposed on outputs of the consequence relation. Most notably, perhaps, is the requirement that the rule of or-introduction not be given free sway on outputs. Also prominent is the effort of paraconsistent logicians, both preservationist and dialetheic, to limit the outputs of inconsistent inputs, which in classical contexts are wholly unconstrained.In some instances, our two themes coincide. Dialetheic logics are a case in point. Dialetheic logics allow certain selected sentences to have, as a third truth value, the classical values of truth and falsity together. So such logics also admit classically inconsistent inputs. A central task is to construct a right non-monotonic consequence relation that allows for these many-valued, and inconsistent, inputs.The Many Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic is an indispensable research tool for anyone interested in the development of logic, including researchers, graduate and senior undergraduate students in logic, history of logic, mathematics, history of mathematics, computer science, AI, linguistics, cognitive science, argumentation theory, and the history of ideas. Detailed and comprehensive chapters covering the entire range of modal logic. Contains the latest scholarly discoveries and interprative insights that answers many questions in the field of logic.
Quantum Mechanics: Theory and Applications by Ajoy Ghatak,S. Lokanathan Pdf
An understanding of quantum mechanics is vital to all students of physics, chemistry and electrical engineering, but requires a lot of mathematical concepts, the details of which are given with great clarity in this book. Various concepts have been derived from first principles, so it can also be used for self-study. The chapters on the JWKB approximation, time-independent perturbation theory and effects of magnetic field stand out for their clarity and easy-to-understand mathematics. Two complete chapters on the linear harmonic oscillator provide a very detailed discussion of one of the most fundamental problems in quantum mechanics. Operator algebra is used to show the ease with which one can calculate the harmonic oscillator wave functions and study the evolution of the coherent state. Similarly, three chapters on angular momentum give a detailed account of this important problem. Perhaps the most attractive feature of the book is the excellent balance between theory and applications and the large number of applications in such diverse areas as astrophysics, nuclear physics, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, solid-state physics, and quantum well structures.
This superb text by David Bohm, formerly Princeton University and Emeritus Professor of Theoretical Physics at Birkbeck College, University of London, provides a formulation of the quantum theory in terms of qualitative and imaginative concepts that have evolved outside and beyond classical theory. Although it presents the main ideas of quantum theory essentially in nonmathematical terms, it follows these with a broad range of specific applications that are worked out in considerable mathematical detail. Addressed primarily to advanced undergraduate students, the text begins with a study of the physical formulation of the quantum theory, from its origin and early development through an analysis of wave vs. particle properties of matter. In Part II, Professor Bohm addresses the mathematical formulation of the quantum theory, examining wave functions, operators, Schrödinger's equation, fluctuations, correlations, and eigenfunctions. Part III takes up applications to simple systems and further extensions of quantum theory formulation, including matrix formulation and spin and angular momentum. Parts IV and V explore the methods of approximate solution of Schrödinger's equation and the theory of scattering. In Part VI, the process of measurement is examined along with the relationship between quantum and classical concepts. Throughout the text, Professor Bohm places strong emphasis on showing how the quantum theory can be developed in a natural way, starting from the previously existing classical theory and going step by step through the experimental facts and theoretical lines of reasoning which led to replacement of the classical theory by the quantum theory.
No-Nonsense Quantum Mechanics by Jakob Schwichtenberg Pdf
Learning Quantum Mechanics doesn’t have to be hard What if there was a way to learn Quantum Mechanics without all the usual fluff and mystification? What if there were a book that allowed you to see the whole picture and not just tiny parts of it? Thoughts like this are the reason that No-Nonsense Quantum Mechanics now exists. What will you learn from this book? Get to know the fundamental quantum features — grasp how different nature works at the level of elementary particles.Learn how to describe Quantum Mechanics mathematically — understand the origin and meaning of the most important quantum equations: the Schrödinger equation + the canonical commutation relations.Master the most important quantum systems — read step-by-step calculations and understand the general algorithm we use to describe them.Get an understanding you can be proud of — learn why there are alternative frameworks to describe Quantum Mechanics and how they are connected to the standard wave description. No-Nonsense Quantum Mechanics is the most student-friendly book on Quantum Mechanics ever written. Here’s why. First of all, it's is nothing like a formal university lecture. Instead, it’s like a casual conservation with a more experienced student. This also means that nothing is assumed to be “obvious” or “easy to see”.Each chapter, each section, and each page focusses solely on the goal to help you understand. Nothing is introduced without a thorough motivation and it is always clear where each equation comes from.The book contains no fluff since unnecessary content quickly leads to confusion. Instead, it ruthlessly focusses on the fundamentals and makes sure you’ll understand them in detail. The primary focus on the readers’ needs is also visible in dozens of small features that you won’t find in any other textbook In total, the book contains more than 100 illustrations that help you understand the most important concepts in visually. In each chapter, you’ll find fully annotated equations and calculations are done carefully step-by-step. This makes it much easier to understand what’s going on in.Whenever a concept is used that was already introduced previously there is a short sidenote that reminds you where it was first introduced and often recites the main points. In addition, there are summaries at the beginning of each chapter that make sure you won’t get lost.
The Present Status of the Quantum Theory of Light by Stanley Jeffers,S. Roy,J.P. Vigier,G. Hunter Pdf
THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE QUANTUM THEORY OF LIGHT In August of 1995, a group of over 70 physicists met at York University for a three-day symposium in honour of Professor Jean-Pierre Vigier. The attendance included theoretical and experimental physicists, mathematicians, astronomers and colleagues concerned with issues in the philosophy of science. The symposium was entitled "The Present Status of the Quantum Theory of Light" in accordance with Professor Vigier's wishes but in fact encompassed many of the areas to which Professor Vigier has contributed over his long and distinguished career. These include stochastic interpretations of quantum mechanics, particle physics, and electromagnetic theory. The papers presented at the symposium have been arranged in this proceedings in the following approximate order: ideas about the nature of light and photons, electrodynamiCS, the formulation and interpretation of quantum mechanics, and aspects of relativity theory. Some of the papers presented deal with alternate interpretations of quantum phenomena in the tradition of Vigier, Bohm et al. These interpretations reject the account given in purely probabilistic terms and which deems individual quantum events to be acausal and not amenable to any analysis in space-time terms. As is well known, Einstein and others also rejected the purely statistical account of quantum mechanics. As stressed by Professor Vigier at the symposium, the current experimental situation now allows for the first time for individual quantum events to be studied, e. g.
Quantum Methods in Social Science by Emmanuel Haven,Andrei Khrennikov,Terry Robinson Pdf
Shown here is how basic concepts of physics can be used to improve models in finance, economics, psychology and biology. Readers are introduced to how physical theory can inform non-physical phenomena in the social sciences, thereby improving decision making and modeling capabilities in research-based and professional settings. Consisting of three parts, the first part deals with the application of quantum operator methods to financial transactions and population dynamics. Part two develops physical concepts, working from classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics and leading to an introduction of quantum information and its application to decision making. The final part treats classical and quantum probability theory in some detail and deals, at a more advanced level, with the impact of quantum probabilities on common knowledge and common beliefs between agents in systems. Quantum Methods in Social Science is a high level textbook for advanced undergraduate or graduate students of economics, finance and business, while also being of interest to those with a background in physics. Request Inspection Copy Contents:Quantum Counting: The Number Operator in a Social Science Context:IntroductionClassical Interlude: Modelling Population DynamicsA Quantum Description of SystemsQuantum CountingQuantum TransactionsQuantum MigrationMore Elaborate SystemsConclusionsReferences — Part IThe Quantum-Like Paradigm with Simple Applications:Taking a Step BackModeling Information with an Operational FormalismDecision Making and Quantum ProbabilityReferences — Part IIThe Quantum-Like Paradigm with Advanced Applications:Basics of Classical ProbabilityQuantum ProbabilityCommon KnowledgeQuantum(-Like) Formalization of Common KnowledgeExamplesAppendixReferences — Part III Readership: Advanced undergraduate or graduate students of economics, finance and business, while also being of interest to those with a background in physics.